- Author: AriesStar
- Picture: Awakener
- Translator: Ranting
After the completion of the land reform, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was eager to carry out the rural reform of the “collectivization movement”, which was set up at different levels in the countryside: mutual aid groups, primary cooperatives, advanced cooperatives, and people’s communes.
The so-called “mutual aid group” is that several farmers pool their money to buy cattle and plows, and use them in turn to cooperate with each other. To a certain extent, it solved the difficulties of insufficient labor, animal power and farming tools in agricultural production, which could be called a “benevolent policy” at that time.
The nature of “primary cooperatives” is quite different. The “primary cooperative” requires farmers to buy shares of land, farm animals, and farming equipment for a price, and the “cooperative” implements unified management. The peasants participate in collective labor, and the products of their labor, after deducting agricultural taxes, production fees, provident funds, public welfare funds and management costs, are distributed according to the quantity and quality of the labor of the “members” and the number of “shares” they hold when they join the society.
If dozens of farmhouses cooperate, use fertilizer collectively, and raise more money to buy and learn to use tractors uniformly in order to improve production efficiency, they can initially move towards modern agricultural production. From this point of view, the “primary cooperative” has contributed to agricultural production to a certain extent. However, the various fees deducted at a later stage seem like a “disguised exploitation”.
An “advanced cooperative” is a step up from a primary cooperative. The land and means of production of hundreds or thousands of farmers were completely owned by the community and distributed “according to labor”, and the basic unit of labor became the “production team”.
If the “primary cooperative” is a semi-private rural collective economic organization, then the “advanced cooperative” is a completely rural collective economic organization. (Similar to the “Kolkhoz” of the former Soviet Union.) Of course, under the Chinese Communist Party, there was a “secretary” position in the “production team”. The “brigade secretary” has a lot of power.
The “People’s Commune” was promoted and implemented by order of the Central Committee of the CCP against the background of the “Great Leap Forward”. Each “people’s commune” consists of dozens or even hundreds of “senior communes”, and the number of its members becomes “thousands of families”. The “people’s commune” was a complete move toward the “communist” establishment.
All commune members eat, live and work together, and there is no private property. Individual members keep “a bowl and chopsticks, a bunk and a cover” in addition to all the property to the public (common). The “people’s commune” is spreading not only in the countryside but also rapidly in the cities. Industry, agriculture, commerce, academia and the military are all on board, and “the government and society are united”, each doing what it can and taking what it needs. After the promotion of the “people’s commune”, there are more and more “lazy people” and fewer and fewer “hardworking people”. The position of “social leader”, of course, appointed by the “party”.
The above introduction can let us understand that “mutual aid groups” did in fact solve the situation of insufficient production materials for farmers in the early stage of the founding of the country, and farmers cooperated with each other to improve production efficiency. But starting with the rapidly expanding “cooperatives,” peasants’ land and production materials were transferred to the collective in the form of “shares”. As a result, the peasants’ private property was completely eliminated by the “people’s commune”. The “big pot”, “no private property”, “each to the best of his ability, each to take what he needs” is naturally the expression of communism, and the promotion of the “people’s commune”, but really “common” all the property.
But did the peasants join the “cooperative” so willingly? Of course not! Chinese farmers have been hard-working and simple for thousands of years, but they are not “stupid”. How can we just give away our hard-earned property? But why has China completed its collectivization in just a few years? Of course it’s bullying and coercion ……
In 1955, Mao’s chief guard, Li Yinqiao, went back home to Anping County, Hebei Province to visit his relatives, and Mao asked him to learn about rural corporativism by the way. Li Yinqiao learned that the township did it this way. The cadres sent down by the district ordered the whole village to stand in the yard and announced, “Those who go with Chiang Kai-shek stand over there and work alone; those who go with Chairman Mao stand over here and engage in cooperation.” With such a “political label”, who still dare not join the community? The honest peasants, naturally, all sided with “Chairman Mao’s side”.
“What the superior loves, his inferiors will be found to love exceedingly”, and coupled with the Chinese Communist Party, an organization whose purpose is revolutionary and whose mission is to fight against the right, the whirlwind of cooperation naturally became more and more violent. The other side of the impact of “membership” is: “Because the fruit trees into the community is not paid, farmers do not want to be communist, rather than cut trees. Pigs and sheep do not want to be send to the community, the only way is to be slaughter. And because of poor management, the large livestock returned to the community, died extremely, the country at once reduced by more than two million. Some cooperatives, the boat was unattended as it drifted out more than thirty miles, the cattle was unseen as it went out more than thirty miles, and the death of cattle in the community accounted for sixty percent.” (Rural Future, 1988, No. 2, Deng Zihui.)
The promotion of “collectivization” to “people’s commune” is the highest level of “Mao Zedong Thought”. The CCP wants to bring China to a utopian “communist” society quickly. The “people’s commune” movement, with its “supreme” goal, not only seriously hurt people’s enthusiasm for production and caused serious waste of production materials, but also caused incalculable far-reaching effects and harm. The nightmare has just begun.