- Author: AriesStar
- Editor: 蚂蚁兄弟
- Proofreader: 阿伯塔
- Picture: Awakener
- Translator: Ranting
On October 10, 1950, the CCP issued the Instruction on Suppression of Counter-Revolution. After the liberation of the country, the CCP government cited the fact that “more than two million political bandits remained on the mainland, along with a large number of bullies, secret agents, reactionary party cadres, reactionary sect leaders and other counter-revolutionary elements, and counter-revolutionary activities were rampant.” for the reason of launching suppression activities.
Party committees throughout the country mobilized the masses and began a massive campaign to “suppress counter-revolutionaries” and “purge counter-revolutionaries”. This campaign, which lasted for two years, was unprecedented in China’s modern history in terms of the thoroughness and cruelty with which the so-called “counter-revolutionaries” of the CCP were eliminated.
The campaign was divided into three phases:
- The first phase was from October 1950 to September 1951.
- The second phase was from October 1951 to September 1952.
- The third phase was from October 1952 to the end of 1953.
Xu Zirong, Executive Vice Minister of the Ministry of Public Security, said in a report in January 1954 that since the crackdown on the counter-revolutionary movement, more than 2.6 million people had been arrested nationwide, of whom more than 710,000 were killed as “counter-revolutionaries”. A “counter-revolutionary movement” killed more than 700,000 people, a figure greater than the total number of people killed on both sides during the Chinese civil war!
Of course, this “counter-revolutionary movement” was directed and deployed by Mao himself. At the beginning of the movement, some local leaders had their hands tied, and Mao directly criticized this tendency of “leniency without borders”.
The Central Committee of the CCP clearly pointed out in its Instruction on the Rightward Bias in the Suppression of Counterrevolutionary Activities that “a serious rightward bias has occurred in the suppression of counterrevolutionary activities, so that a large number of the primary counterrevolutionary elements who have not reformed and continue to do evil after liberation, even after leniency, have not been duly sanctioned”.
Mao initially demanded that the proportion of killings should reach 0.5 per thousand of the total local population, and in serious places, one thousandth of the total local population; later he said that individual places could break through, but not more than 1.5 per thousand, and at most not more than 2 per thousand.
On January 17, 1951, Mao Zedong received a report on the crackdown on the 27th Army stationed in western Hunan, forwarded by the South Central Bureau, which said that in 21 counties in western Hunan, the garrison troops alone had executed more than 4,600 bandit leaders, bullies and agents, and were preparing to kill another batch by the local government.
Mao Zedong approved: “This disposal is very necessary”, and stressed that “especially those places where bandits are rampant, where there are many bullies, and where secret agents are concentrated, we should kill a few batches”, and asked that “all places must hurry to do so “. On January 22, Mao Zedong telegraphed the head of the South China Branch and the Guangdong Provincial Committee, saying, “You have killed more than 3,700, which is good, kill 3 or 4,000 more”, and “you can kill 8 or 9,000 people this year as a target”.
On January 29, the Ministry of Public Security reported to the Central and South Military Commission that Hubei Province had arrested 19,823 people, including 160 within the provincial authorities. The Ministry of Public Security annotated on the report, “To carry out arrests so indiscriminately from inside and outside is likely to cause panic and ideological fluctuations among the general cadres.” After reading it, Mao Zedong criticized the Ministry of Public Security: “Hubei is doing very well, don’t throw a damp over it”.
On February 5, the Northwest Bureau of the Central Committee reported that more than 5,000 people had been arrested in two months and more than 500 people had been killed, although the overall look of the killings were not hard and the processing was slow; however, the implementation of the anti-rebellion plan must require stability and approval to kill all in the provinces. Mao Zedong read and approved: “For those who are sentenced to death, it is enough to execute them with the approval of the special department for lighter cases”. People follow the example of their superiors. In many places, the authority to authorize killings has been further delegated from the commissioner level to the county level.
In mid-February 1951, Mao Zedong directly telegraphed to the heads of the Shanghai and Nanjing municipal committees, saying: “Shanghai is a big city with a population of 6 million, and according to the situation that more than 20,000 people have been arrested in Shanghai and only 200 killed, I think that at least 3,000 criminal bandit leaders, habitual bandits, bullies, secret agents and (Taoist) sect leaders should be killed within a year in 1951. And at least about 1500 people should be killed in the first half of the year. I ask you to consider whether this figure is appropriate. On the Nanjing side, according to a telegram from Comrade Ke Qingshi to Rao Shushi on February 3, 72 people have been killed and another 1,500 are to be killed, which is too few. Nanjing is a big city of 500,000 people, the capital of the Kuomintang, and it seems that more than 2,000 reactionaries should be killed.” “Too few people were killed in Nanjing, more should be killed in Nanjing”.
As a result of Mao’s urging and encouragement, arrests and killings appeared to be out of control, and some places demanded a breakthrough in the control targets for arrests and killings proposed by the central government, especially the target for killings. The Guizhou Provincial Committee proposed that the number of killers should reach three thousandths of the total population in order to solve the problem.
Southwest and South China also require breakthrough indicators. By early May 1951, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces had arrested 188,679 people and executed 57,032, with Guangdong executing 10,488 in one month in April. By the end of April, more than 358,000 people had been arrested and 108,400 executed in eastern China, accounting for 0.78 per thousand of the total population; in central and southern China, by early May, more than 200,000 people had been killed, nearly 1.5 percent of the total population.
Looking at the information and figures compiled by these historical researchers, I can’t help but feel a shiver down my spine. What kind of devil, what kind of political party, rules the Chinese land ……
After years of war, the people need to recuperate and the new regime should adopt a tolerant policy to heal the cracks in society. The purpose of the CCP’s campaign, on the surface, appears to be to remove the remnants of the KMT left on the mainland. But the real reason is “revenge”.
The Kuomintang had killed enough “red bandits” when they were in power, and Mao and Zhou had escaped very narrowly. Now that “the sky has changed”, they want to return the favor and avenge their hatred. How narrow-minded the Chinese Communist Party is, and how vicious the Chinese Communist Party is!