保护美国龙虾产业备忘录

PRESIDENTIAL MEMORANDA

总统备忘录

Memorandum on Protecting the United States Lobster Industry

保护美国龙虾产业备忘录

LAND & AGRICULTURE

国土与农业

Issued on: June 24, 2020

发布日期:2020年6月24日

MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE
THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE

农业部长
商务部部长
美国贸易代表
备忘录

SUBJECT: Protecting the United States Lobster Industry

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

主题:保护美国龙虾产业

根据美利坚合众国宪法和法律赋予我的总统权力,现命令如下:

Section 1.  Policy.  On May 22, 2018, the United States Trade Representative (Trade Representative) concluded an investigation under section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2411), finding that China had engaged in multiple unreasonable and discriminatory trade practices that had harmed American intellectual property rights, innovation, and technology development.  In response to China’s unfair and unreasonable conduct, the United States imposed tariffs on several categories of Chinese products.

Rather than reform its practices, China responded to the Trade Representative’s findings with unjust retaliatory tariffs designed strategically to inflict financial harm on America’s farmers, fishermen, and workers in other industries.

第1节. 政策。 2018年5月22日,美国贸易代表(以下简称贸易代表)依据1974年《贸易法》修订版第301节(19 U.S.C. 2411)结束了调查,认定中国从事了多种不合理且具有歧视性的贸易惯例,损害了美国的知识产权,创新和技术发展。为了回应中国的不公平和不合理行为,美国对几类中国产品征收了关税。中国未改革其原有的贸易惯例,而是对贸易代表的调查结果作出了不公正的报复性关税,旨在对美国的农民,渔民和其他行业的工人造成经济损失。

My Administration has forcefully addressed China’s unfair assault on American producers.  Among other measures, I directed the Secretary of Agriculture to deliver a comprehensive trade aid package to American farmers.  He did so, providing more than 14 billion dollars in direct payments to American farmers under the authority of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) Charter Act.

本届政府已强有力地解决了中国对美国生产者不公平的攻击。除其他措施外,我指示了农业部长向美国农民提供全面的贸易援助。他依据《商品信贷公司(CCC)宪章法》的授权向美国农民提供了超过140亿美元的直接支付。

China’s retaliatory assault on the American lobster industry was particularly aggressive.  On July 6, 2018, China imposed retaliatory 25 percent tariffs on American lobster.  On September 1, 2019, China raised those retaliatory tariffs to 35 percent.  On February 14, 2020, China reduced its punitive lobster tariffs to 30 percent.  When those retaliatory tariffs are added to China’s prevailing Most Favored Nation tariffs of 5 percent and 7 percent, depending on the species of lobster, American lobsters currently face tariffs of either 35 percent or 37 percent.

中国对美国龙虾产业的报复性攻击特别激进。 2018年7月6日,中国对美国龙虾征收了25%的报复性关税。 2019年9月1日,中国将这些报复性关税提高到35%。 2020年2月14日,中国将龙虾的惩罚性关税降低至30%。这些报复性关税再加上中国现行的最惠国关税的5%和7%时(取决于龙虾的种类),美国龙虾目前面临的关税是35%或37%。

On January 15, 2020, I signed the landmark Economic and Trade Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People’s Republic of China (“Phase One Agreement”).  The Phase One Agreement requires important structural reforms from China related to issues such as intellectual property theft, forced technology transfer, and exchange rate manipulation.  As part of the Phase One Agreement, China made binding commitments to purchase large quantities of United States manufactured goods, agricultural products, and services.  Seafood, including lobsters, is one of the agricultural products China agreed to purchase.  To help fulfill this purchase commitment, China has made available exclusions from its retaliatory tariffs for imports of United States lobster.

2020年1月15日,我签署了具有里程碑意义的《美国政府与中华人民共和国政府之间的经贸协定》(以下简称《第一阶段协定》)。 《第一阶段协定》要求中国进行重大的结构性改革,涉及知识产权盗窃,强迫技术转让和汇率操纵等问题。作为《第一阶段协定》的一部分,中国做出了具有约束力的承诺,即购买大量美国制造产品,农产品和服务。海鲜,包括龙虾,是中国同意购买的农产品之一。为帮助履行这一购买承诺,中国已将对美国龙虾的进口排除在报复性关税外。

At this time, it remains unclear to what extent China’s exclusions from its retaliatory tariffs will result in increased exports of United States lobster.  Such exports are particularly important because exports to the European Union, another large market for United States lobster, appear to have been significantly and negatively affected by the recent implementation of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union.

目前,尚不清楚究竟何种程度上的中国报复性关税白名单才会导致美国龙虾出口增加。此类出口特别重要,因为美国龙虾的另一个出口大市场欧盟,似乎受到加拿大和欧盟之间最近执行的《全面经济和贸易协定》(CETA)的严重不利影响。

The lobster industry is a crown jewel of America’s seafood industry.  From 2015 to 2018, American lobster was the most valuable single seafood species harvested in the United States, with Maine accounting for approximately 80 percent of that value each year.  It is, therefore, the policy of my Administration to mitigate the effects of unfair retaliatory trade practices on this important industry.

龙虾行业是美国海鲜行业的皇冠上的明珠。从2015年到2018年,龙虾是美国收获的最有价值的单一海产品种,缅因州每年约占该值的80%。因此,本届政府的政策是减轻不公平报复性贸易惯例对该重要行业的影响。

Sec. 2.  Protecting the United States Lobster Industry.  (a)  The Secretary of Agriculture shall, within 60 days of the date of this memorandum, consider taking appropriate action, to the extent permitted by applicable law, to provide assistance to fishermen and producers in the United States lobster industry that continue to be harmed by China’s retaliatory tariffs.

(b)  The Secretary of Agriculture shall also consider including, to the extent permitted by applicable law, the United States lobster industry and other segments of the United States seafood industry in any future assistance provided to mitigate the effects of China’s retaliatory trade practices.

第2节.保护美国龙虾产业。 (a)农业部长应在本备忘录之日起60天内,考虑在适用法律允许的范围内采取适当行动,为持续受到中国报复性关税损害的美国龙虾产业的渔民和生产者提供帮助。

(b)农业部长还应考虑在适用法律允许的范围内,针对包括美国龙虾行业和美国海鲜行业的其他部分提供的任何未来所需援助,来减轻中国报复性贸易惯例的影响。

Sec. 3.  Reciprocal Tariffs.  (a)  The Trade Representative shall, beginning August 15, 2020, submit a monthly report to the President detailing:

(i)   China’s progress in meeting its purchase commitments under the Phase One Agreement with respect to United States seafood; and

(ii)  the value of monthly Maine and other United States lobster exports to China, beginning with China’s imports for June 2020.

(b)  In the event that the Trade Representative determines that China is not meeting its purchase commitments under the Phase One Agreement with respect to seafood, the Trade Representative shall consider, to the extent permitted by law, taking all appropriate action to impose reciprocal retaliatory tariffs on seafood exports from China.

第3节.互惠关税。 (a)贸易代表应于2020年8月15日开始向总统提交每月报告,详细说明:

(i)中国在履行《第一阶段协定》中关于美国海产品的购买承诺方面的进展;和

(ii)中国从2020年6月开始进口的,缅因州和美国其他龙虾的月度额度。

(b)如果贸易代表确定中国未能履行其在《第一阶段协定》中关于海产品的购买承诺,则贸易代表应在法律允许的范围内考虑采取一切适当行动,针对中国出口的海产品,采取对等报复性措施征收关税。

Sec. 4.  Addressing Negative Effects of the CETA between Canada and the European Union on the United States Lobster Industry.  Pursuant to section 1332(g) of title 19, United States Code, and section 5-301 of Executive Order 12661 of December 27, 1988 (Implementing the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 and Related International Trade Matters), the Trade Representative shall request that the United States International Trade Commission (USITC) provide a report that details any negative effects of the CETA on the United States lobster industry.  The Trade Representative shall submit such report to the President.  The Trade Representative, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and Secretary of Commerce, shall recommend appropriate actions that may be taken to minimize or eliminate any negative effects identified in the USITC report.

第4节.解决加拿大和欧盟之间的CETA对美国龙虾产业的负面影响。依据美国法典第19编第1332(g)节和1988年12月27日第12661号行政命令第5-301节(实施1988年《综合贸易和竞争法》及相关国际贸易事项),贸易代表应要求美国国际贸易委员会(USITC)提供一份报告,详细说明CETA对美国龙虾产业的所有负面影响。贸易代表应将该报告提交总统。贸易代表应与农业部长和商务部长协商后,推荐出可采取适当措施,以最大程度地减少或消除USITC报告中指出的负面影响。

Sec. 5.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b)  This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c)  This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

第5节.一般规定。(a)本备忘录中的任何内容均不得用于为损害或以其他方式影响做解释:

(i)法律授予执行部门或机构或其负责人的权力;或者

(ii)管理和预算办公室主任与预算、行政或立法提案有关的职能。

(b)本备忘录应根据适用法律执行,并视拨款情况而定。

(c)本备忘录无意也不会创造任何权利或利益,无论是实体还是程序上的任何权利或利益,任何一方均可针对美国,其部门、机关或实体,其高级职员、雇员、代理商或任何其他人在法律上或衡平法下执行。

DONALD J. TRUMP

The White House

唐纳德·川普

白宫

白宫链接:Memorandum on Protecting the United States Lobster Industry

翻译:【Prof. Bacteriophage】 校对:【V%】

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"For everyone practicing evil hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed." [John 3:20] 6月 25日