川普总统关于建造和重建美国英雄纪念碑的行政令

Photo by Ronda Darby on Unsplash

7月3日川普总统发布关于建造和重建美国英雄纪念碑的行政命令,该命令将由一个专门组建特遣工作队负责,选择一个自然风景优美的地方修建国家公园,并委托艺术家创作雕塑,将具有历史意义的美国公众人物,包括开国元勋、美国前总统、为废除奴隶制等的先驱们的雕像与纪念碑展示其中,以使美国人民永远不会忘记自己的历史,并将建国理想世世代代传承下去。

Executive Order on Building and Rebuilding Monuments to American Heroes

关于建造和重建美国英雄纪念碑的行政命令

Issued on: July 3, 2020

发布日期:2020年7月3日

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1.  Purpose.  America owes its present greatness to its past sacrifices.  Because the past is always at risk of being forgotten, monuments will always be needed to honor those who came before.  Since the time of our founding, Americans have raised monuments to our greatest citizens.  In 1784, the legislature of Virginia commissioned the earliest statue of George Washington, a “monument of affection and gratitude” to a man who “united to the endowments of the Hero the virtues of the Patriot” and gave to the world “an Immortal Example of true Glory.”  I Res. H. Del. (June 24, 1784).  In our public parks and plazas, we have erected statues of great Americans who, through acts of wisdom and daring, built and preserved for us a republic of ordered liberty.

根据美利坚合众国宪法和法律赋予我的总统的权力,特此命令如下:

第一节,目的:美国之伟大,是过去无数人民用生命换来的。然而过往的经历总却极容易被遗忘,因此我们需要树立纪念碑来缅怀那些先驱者们。自建国以来,美国人民为这些伟大的公民树立了丰碑。 1784年,弗杰尼亚州立法机关委托建造了华盛顿雕像,美国最早的一座以“表达感激之情的纪念碑”,以表彰这位“将爱国的美德赋予人民”,并为世界树立了“真正荣耀的不朽典范”的英雄。国会议事录(1784年6月24日)。在我们的公园和广场上,曾经树立了很多伟大的美国人的雕像,是他们的智慧和勇敢,为我们建立并保存了一个有秩序的自由共和国。

These statues are silent teachers in solid form of stone and metal.  They preserve the memory of our American story and stir in us a spirit of responsibility for the chapters yet unwritten.  These works of art call forth gratitude for the accomplishments and sacrifices of our exceptional fellow citizens who, despite their flaws, placed their virtues, their talents, and their lives in the service of our Nation.  These monuments express our noblest ideals:  respect for our ancestors, love of freedom, and striving for a more perfect union.  They are works of beauty, created as enduring tributes.  In preserving them, we show reverence for our past, we dignify our present, and we inspire those who are to come.  To build a monument is to ratify our shared national project.

这些雕像是由石头和金属做成的,他们是无声的老师,为我们诉说着美国的历史和故事,并激励着我们对尚未书写的篇章应尽责的精神。这些艺术品唤起了我们对这些杰出公民的成就与牺牲的感激之情。尽管他们并不完美,但他们将自己的美德、才华和生命奉献给了我们的国家。这些纪念碑表达了我们最崇高的理想:尊重我们的先辈,热爱自由,为建立一个更完美的联邦而奋斗。它们是美丽的、经久不衰的艺术品。通过对它们的保存,我们得以表达对过去的崇敬,对当代(所取得的成就)的赞美,并激励未来的人们。修建一座纪念碑意味着公民们对这项国家工程的共同愿望。

To destroy a monument is to desecrate our common inheritance.  In recent weeks, in the midst of protests across America, many monuments have been vandalized or destroyed.  Some local governments have responded by taking their monuments down.  Among others, monuments to Christopher Columbus, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Francis Scott Key, Ulysses S. Grant, leaders of the abolitionist movement, the first all-volunteer African-American regiment of the Union Army in the Civil War, and American soldiers killed in the First and Second World Wars have been vandalized, destroyed, or removed.

摧毁一座纪念碑就是亵渎我们的共同遗产。最近几周,在美国各地的抗议活动中,许多纪念碑遭到了毁坏。一些地方政府的回应是将它们拆除,这些被毁坏和拆除的雕像包括克里斯托弗· 哥伦布、乔治·华盛顿、托马斯·杰弗逊、本杰明·富兰克林、弗朗西斯·斯科特·基、尤利西斯·格兰特、废奴运动的领袖们、第一个非裔美国自愿军团,以及在第一和第二次世界大战中阵亡的美国士兵。

These statues are not ours alone, to be discarded at the whim of those inflamed by fashionable political passions; they belong to generations that have come before us and to generations yet unborn.  My Administration will not abide an assault on our collective national memory.  In the face of such acts of destruction, it is our responsibility as Americans to stand strong against this violence, and to peacefully transmit our great national story to future generations through newly commissioned monuments to American heroes.

这些因时髦的政治激情而致的心血来潮的冲动所毁掉的雕像,它们不仅仅是属于我们的,它们是属于我们几代的先辈们,属于我们未来的世世代代。我国政府绝不会允许对我们国家集体记忆的这种攻击!面对这样的破坏行为,作为美国人,我们有责任坚决地抵制这种暴力,并通过为美国英雄们新建纪念碑,把我们伟大国家的故事和平地代代相传。

Sec. 2.  Task Force for Building and Rebuilding Monuments to American Heroes.

 (a)  There is hereby established the Interagency Task Force for Building and Rebuilding Monuments to American Heroes (Task Force).  The Task Force shall be chaired by the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary), and shall include the following additional members:

(i)    the Administrator of General Services (Administrator);

(ii)   the Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA);

(iii)  the Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH);

(iv)   the Chairman of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP); and

(v)    any officers or employees of any executive department or agency (agency) designated by the President or the Secretary.

第二节. 建造和重建美国英雄纪念碑的特遣工作队

  (a). 特此设立为修建和重建纪念碑的跨机构合作工作队。工作队须由内政部长(局长)担任主席,并须包括以下其他成员:

(i). 总务署署长(Administrator);

(ii). 国家艺术基金会(NEA)主席;

(iii). 国家人文基金会(NEH)主席;

(iv). 历史保护资讯委员会主席;

(v). 总统或行政部长指定的任何行政部门或机构的官员或员工(Agency)。

(b)  The Department of the Interior shall provide funding and administrative support as may be necessary for the performance and functions of the Task Force.  The Secretary shall designate an official of the Department of the Interior to serve as the Executive Director of the Task Force, responsible for coordinating its day-to-day activities.

内政部应为工作队的执行和职能提供必要的资金和行政支持。内政部长应指定该部的一名官员担任工作队的执行主任,负责协调其日常工作。

(c)  The Chairpersons of the NEA and NEH and the Chairman of the ACHP shall establish cross-department initiatives within the NEA, NEH, and ACHP, respectively, to advance the purposes of the Task Force and this order and to coordinate relevant agency operations with the Task Force.

(c). 国家能源局(NEA)、国家艺术基金会(NEA)、国家人文基金会(NEH)、历史古迹保护资讯委员会(ACHP)的主席们须分别在本部建立跨部门小组,以推进工作队和执行本命令的目的,并与工作队协调相关机构的运作。

Sec. 3.  National Garden of American Heroes.

 (a)  It shall be the policy of the United States to establish a statuary park named the National Garden of American Heroes (National Garden).

第三节. 美国英雄的国家花园

(a). 建立一个以国家花园命名的雕像公园应是美国的政策。

(b)  Within 60 days of the date of this order, the Task Force shall submit a report to the President through the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy that proposes options for the creation of the National Garden, including potential locations for the site. In identifying options, the Task Force shall:

(i)    strive to open the National Garden expeditiously;

(ii)   evaluate the feasibility of creating the National Garden through a variety of potential avenues, including existing agency authorities and appropriations; and

(iii)  consider the availability of authority to encourage and accept the donation or loan of statues by States, localities, civic organizations, businesses, religious organizations, and individuals, for display at the National Garden.

(b). 在本命令发布之日起60天内,工作队应通过总统助理向总统提交一份国内政策报告,该报告应提出创建国家花园的方案,包括一些可供选择的场地。在确定被选方案时,工作队应:

(i). 尽力迅速开放国家花园;

(ii). 通过各种可能途径,包括各机构的专家和拨款,评估建立国家花园的可行性;

(iii). 考虑是否也可以鼓励和接受来自州、地区、民间组织、企业、宗教组织以及个人的捐款或出借雕像,以便在国家花园展示。

(c)  In addition to the requirements of subsection 3(b) of this order, the proposed options for the National Garden should adhere to the criteria described in subsections (c)(i) through (c)(vi) of this section.

(i)    The National Garden should be composed of statues, including statues of John Adams, Susan B. Anthony, Clara Barton, Daniel Boone, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Henry Clay, Davy Crockett, Frederick Douglass, Amelia Earhart, Benjamin Franklin, Billy Graham , Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Luther King, Jr., Abraham Lincoln, Douglas MacArthur, Dolley Madison, James Madison, Christa McAuliffe, Audie Murphy, George S. Patton, Jr., Ronald Reagan, Jackie Robinson, Betsy Ross, Antonin Scalia, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Harriet Tubman, Booker T. Washington, George Washington, and Orville and Wilbur Wright.

(ii)   The National Garden should be opened for public access prior to the 250th anniversary of the proclamation of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 2026.

(c). 除本命令第3(b)小节要求外,国家花园的拟议方案应符合本节(c)(i)至(c) (vi)小节所定的标准。

(i). 国家花园应由雕像组成,它们包括约翰·亚当斯、苏珊·b·安东尼、克拉拉·巴顿、丹尼尔·布恩、约书亚·劳伦斯·张伯伦、亨利·克莱、戴维·克罗基特、弗雷德里克·道格拉斯、阿米利亚·埃尔哈特、本杰明·富兰克林、比利·格雷厄姆、亚历山大·汉密尔顿、托马斯·杰斐逊、小马丁·路德·金、亚伯拉罕·林肯、道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟将军、多利·麦迪逊、詹姆斯·麦迪逊、克里斯塔·麦考利夫奥迪·墨菲、乔治·S·巴顿将军、罗纳德·里根、杰基·罗宾森、贝琪·罗斯、安东宁·斯卡利亚、哈里特·比彻·斯托、哈里特·塔布曼、布克·T·华盛顿、乔治·华盛顿,奥维尔和威尔伯·赖特。

(ii). 国家花园应在2026年7月4日美国独立宣言的250周年纪念日之前对公众开放。

(iii)  Statues should depict historically significant Americans, as that term is defined in section 7 of this order, who have contributed positively to America throughout our history.  Examples include:  the Founding Fathers, those who fought for the abolition of slavery or participated in the underground railroad, heroes of the United States Armed Forces, recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor or Presidential Medal of Freedom, scientists and inventors, entrepreneurs, civil rights leaders, missionaries and religious leaders, pioneers and explorers, police officers and firefighters killed or injured in the line of duty, labor leaders, advocates for the poor and disadvantaged, opponents of national socialism or international socialism, former Presidents of the United States and other elected officials, judges and justices, astronauts, authors, intellectuals, artists, and teachers.  None will have lived perfect lives, but all will be worth honoring, remembering, and studying.

(iv)   All statues in the National Garden should be lifelike or realistic representations of the persons they depict, not abstract or modernist representations.

(v)    The National Garden should be located on a site of natural beauty that enables visitors to enjoy nature, walk among the statues, and be inspired to learn about great figures of America’s history.  The site should be proximate to at least one major population center, and the site should not cause significant disruption to the local community.

(vi)   As part of its civic education mission, the National Garden should also separately maintain a collection of statues for temporary display at appropriate sites around the United States that are accessible to the general public.

(iii). 根据本命令第7条定义,被塑立雕像的都是具有历史意义的美国人,他们在整个美国历史上做出了积极贡献。比如:开国元勋们、为废除奴隶制而奋斗的英雄,参加“地下铁路”的人们、美国武装部队的英雄们、国会荣誉勋章或总统自由勋章的获得者、科学家和发明家、企业家、民权领袖、传教士和宗教领袖、开拓者和探险者、在执行任务中牺牲或受伤的警察和消防员、工会领袖、知识分子、为贫穷和弱势群体服务的社会工作者、反对国家社会主义或国际社会主义的斗士、前美国总统和其他民选政府官员、法官和大法官、宇航员、作家、知识分子、艺术家、教师。他们都不完美,但却值得被尊重、纪念和学习。

(iv). 国家花园的雕像都应是现实主义的作品,人物刻画栩栩如生,仿佛是他们生前再现。不用抽象或现代主义的表现手法。

(v). 国家花园应该建在一个自然风景优美的地方,游客们在心旷神怡之际漫步于雕像间,受到感召的心灵更易激发起对这些伟大人物的了解和学习的渴望。

(vi). 作为公民教育使命的一部分,国家花园还应该另外保存一组雕像,以便在全美各地公众可访问的适当地点临时展示。

Sec. 4.  Commissioning of New Statues and Works of Art.  (a)  The Task Force shall examine the appropriations authority of the agencies represented on it in light of the purpose and policy of this order.  Based on its examination of relevant authorities, the Task Force shall make recommendations for the use of these agencies’ appropriations.

(b)  To the extent appropriate and consistent with applicable law and the other provisions of this order, Task Force agencies that are authorized to provide for the commissioning of statues or monuments shall, in expending funds, give priority to projects involving the commissioning of publicly accessible statues of persons meeting the criteria described in section 3(b)(iii) of this order, with particular preference for statues of the Founding Fathers, former Presidents of the United States, leading abolitionists, and individuals involved in the discovery of America.

第四节. 对新雕像和艺术品的制作的选拔

(a). 工作队应根据本命令的宗旨和政策审查其所代表的各机构的拨款权限。根据对有关机构的审查基础上,工作队应就这些机构的拨款提出建议。

(b). 在与适当的法律和本命令的其它规定相一致的情况下,工作队经授权为雕像的制作的选拔任务的机构,应在支出的资金中优先考虑那些方便公众参观的、符合在3(b)(iii)所描述的标准的雕像项目,尤其是优先考虑开国元勋人物雕像、美国总统、主要的废奴主义者,以及参与发现美洲大陆的人。

(c)  To the extent appropriate and consistent with applicable law, these agencies shall prioritize projects that will result in the installation of a statue as described in subsection (b) of this section in a community where a statue depicting a historically significant American was removed or destroyed in conjunction with the events described in section 1 of this order.

(c). 在与适当的法律和本命令的其它规定相一致的情况下,这些机构应优先考虑在那些具有历史意义的美国雕像遭到移除或毁坏的社区(即在本命令的第一节中所描述的事件)安装符合(b)小节中描述的雕像项目。

(d)  After consulting with the Task Force, the Administrator of General Services shall promptly revise and thereafter operate the General Service Administration’s (GSA’s) Art in Architecture (AIA) Policies and Procedures, GSA Acquisition Letter V-10-01, and Part 102-77 of title 41, Code of Federal Regulations, to prioritize the commission of works of art that portray historically significant Americans or events of American historical significance or illustrate the ideals upon which our Nation was founded.  Priority should be given to public-facing monuments to former Presidents of the United States and to individuals and events relating to the discovery of America, the founding of the United States, and the abolition of slavery.  Such works of art should be designed to be appreciated by the general public and by those who use and interact with Federal buildings.  Priority should be given to this policy above other policies contained in part 102-77 of title 41, Code of Federal Regulations, and revisions made pursuant to this subsection shall be made to supersede any regulatory provisions of AIA that may conflict with or otherwise impede advancing the purposes of this subsection.

(d). 在与特遣工作队协商之后,总务管理局局长应立即修订与启动总务管理局(GSA)的建筑艺术(AIA)政策和程序,GSA采购信函V-10-01和《联邦规则汇编》第41篇第102-77段,以优先考虑那些具有历史意义的美国人雕像,或具有历史意义的事件,或能够折射出我们建国理想的雕像艺术品。优先考虑还包括面向公众的前美国总统的纪念碑,以及与美国的发现和建国、废除奴隶制有关的人。此类艺术品的设计应受到公众和使用联邦建筑物的人们的欣赏。优先考虑这一政策,此政策高于在《联邦规则汇编》第41篇102-77段中所描述的其它政策,并根据本小节进行的修订以取代任何可能阻碍推进本小节目标的AIA监管规定。

(e)  When a statue or work of art commissioned pursuant to this section is meant to depict a historically significant American, the statue or work of art shall be a lifelike or realistic representation of that person, not an abstract or modernist representation.

(e). 当根据本条委托创作的雕像或艺术品符合对历史意义的美国人的描绘时,该雕像或艺术品应是此人的栩栩如生或真实的呈现,而不是抽象或现代主义的表现。

Sec. 5.  Educational Programming.  The Chairperson of the NEH shall prioritize the allocation of funding to programs and projects that educate Americans about the founding documents and founding ideals of the United States, as appropriate and to the extent consistent with applicable law, including section 956 of title 20, United States Code.  The founding documents include the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Federalist Papers.  The founding ideals include equality under the law, respect for inalienable individual rights, and representative self-government.  Within 90 days of the conclusion of each Fiscal Year from 2021 through 2026, the Chairperson shall submit a report to the President through the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy that identifies funding allocated to programs and projects pursuant to this section.

第五节. 教育计画。 NEH主席应酌情并在与适用法律(包括《美利坚合众国法典》第20篇第956条)相一致的范围内,对美国人在学习建国文件和建国理想的教育计画和项目给予优先资金分配。建国文件波包括《独立宣言》、《宪法》、《联邦主义者文集》。建国理想包括法律下的平等、尊重不可剥夺的个人权利和代议制自治。在2021年至2026年的每个财政年度结束后的90天内,该主席应通过国内政策主席助理向总统提交一份报告,将根据本节对计画和项目进行的资金分配作出说明。

Sec. 6.  Protection of National Garden and Statues Commissioned Pursuant to this Order.  The Attorney General shall apply section 3 of Executive Order 13933 of June 26, 2020 (Protecting American Monuments, Memorials, and Statues and Combating Recent Criminal Violence), with respect to violations of Federal law regarding the National Garden and all statues commissioned pursuant to this order.

第六节. 根据此命令委托对国家花园的雕像进行保护。司法部长应执行2020年6月26日第13933号行政命令第3节(保护美国古迹,纪念碑和雕像,打击近期的犯罪暴力),并根据本命令对涉及国家花园和所有雕像的违反联邦法律的行为做出惩戒。

Sec. 7.  Definition.  The term “historically significant American” means an individual who was, or became, an American citizen and was a public figure who made substantive contributions to America’s public life or otherwise had a substantive effect on America’s history.  The phrase also includes public figures such as Christopher Columbus, Junipero Serra, and the Marquis de La Fayette, who lived prior to or during the American Revolution and were not American citizens, but who made substantive historical contributions to the discovery, development, or independence of the future United States.

第七节. 定义。 “具有历史意义的美国人”这一短语是指一个已是美国公民、或后来成为美国公民的人,他是一个对美国社会做出了重大贡献或对美国历史产生了巨大影响的公众人物。该短语还包括克里斯托弗·哥伦布、朱尼佩罗·塞拉和德拉费耶特侯爵等公众人物。他们生活在美国革命之前或期间,他们不是美国公民,但他们对美国的发现、发展和独立做出了实质性的历史贡献。

Sec. 8.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b)  This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees , or agents, or any other person.

第八节. 总体规定。 (a). 本命令中的任何内容均不得被解释为损害或影响:

(i). 法律授予行政部门或机构或其负责人的权利;或

(ii). 管理局和预算局局长、行政或立法建议的职能。

(b)本命令的执行应与适用法律相一致,并视拨款情况而定。

(c)本命令无意,也不会为任何一方创造权力或利益,无论是实体还是程序,无论以法律执行还是以政党、部门、机构、政府官员、雇员,或代理商,或其他任何人。

DONALD J. TRUMP

THE WHITE HOUSE,
July 3, 2020.

唐纳德·川普

白宫

2020年7月3日

翻译报导:【奔腾的长江】

战友之家玫瑰园小队出品

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Himalaya Rose Garden Team

“but those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings like eagles; they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be faint” 【Isaiah 40:31】 7月 05日