根据财新网报道内容梳理石正丽曾经发表过的四篇研究论文

作者:Diago

在详细查阅了石正丽在财新的报道轨迹后,共梳理出来石正丽自2003年至2018年四篇重要论文,这四篇论文侧重点分别是:

1、2003年SARS病毒的自然宿主是什么?

2、2003年SARS病毒的源头是什么?

3、如何把蝙蝠身上的病毒调整成为可以在人体传播的病毒?

4、新型冠状病毒在猪身上的传播效果是什么?

1.2005年Bats Are Natural Reservoirs of SARS-Like Coronaviruses,(Science  28 Oct 2005:)

据财新2013年11月01日 15:51发表的研究确认SARS病毒来源于中华菊头蝠 “2005年检测到的病毒与SARS病毒的亲缘关系不是特别接近,虽然从生物学进化分析上可以说与SARS病毒同源,还是受到质疑证据不够充分。”根据这条石正丽本人的叙述,说明从中国云南的中华菊头蝠中分离出的SARS样冠状病毒,与SARS病毒非常相似,亲缘关系很近,可以确定SARS病毒来源于中国本土。此前,非洲、欧洲等国也曾在蝙蝠体内检测到与SARS病毒相似的SARS样冠状病毒,但都与其亲缘关系差距较远,不是SARS病毒的近亲。

从生物学进化分析上可以说与SARS病毒同源

(该论文作者:Wendong Li1,2, Zhengli Shi2,*, Meng Yu3, Wuze Ren2, Craig Smith4, Jonathan H. Epstein5, Hanzhong Wang2, Gary Crameri3, Zhihong Hu2, Huajun Zhang2, Jianhong Zhang2, Jennifer McEachern3, Hume Field4, Peter Daszak5, Bryan T. Eaton3, Shuyi Zhang1,6,*, Lin-Fa Wang3,*

根据英雄科学家闫丽梦的揭发,CCP冠状病毒就是基于中共军方发现并保管的舟山蝙蝠病毒,那么石正丽的这篇论文到底要达到什么样的目的?作为业内人士,石正丽的这篇论文与管轶当初发表的SARS病毒的中间宿主是果子狸的论文可谓异曲同工;

2. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor  (Published: 30 October 2013

论文摘要:

【The 2002–3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history1. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses3,4,5, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa5,6,7,8, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)9,10. Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.】

据财新2013年11月01日 15:51发表的研究确认SARS病毒来源于中华菊头蝠提到

 “这次分离到的病毒则与SARS病毒亲缘关系更近,可以进一步证实中华菊头蝠是SARS病毒的源头。本次研究中,石正丽团队通过细胞学实验,还发现从中华菊头蝠中分离出的SARS样冠状病毒,能够感染人、猪、猴以及蝙蝠的多种细胞。本次研究中,石正丽团队通过细胞学实验,还发现从中华菊头蝠中分离出的SARS样冠状病毒,能够感染人、猪、猴以及蝙蝠的多种细胞。石正丽表示,从细胞学实验推测,该病毒存在传播人类的潜在风险,但病毒从野生动物直接传播到人的几率很小,该病毒有没有可能直接从蝙蝠传给人类,需要进一步研究。”

(该论文作者:Xing-Yi GeJia-Lu LiXing-Lou YangAleksei A. ChmuraGuangjian ZhuJonathan H. EpsteinJonna K. MazetBen HuWei ZhangCheng PengYu-Ji ZhangChu-Ming LuoBing TanNing WangYan ZhuGary CrameriShu-Yi ZhangLin-Fa WangPeter Daszak & Zheng-Li Shi,)

这则论文透露出一个重要内容:石正丽团队通过细胞学实验进行SARS冠状病毒从蝙蝠传染给人、猪、猴以及蝙蝠等的实验,这种实验的目的是什么?是否违反人伦?难道病毒专家都要拿未知病毒来做是否传染人类的实验?

3. .A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence发表于2015年11月9日(Published: 09 November 2015 )第三篇论文发现:只要把蝙蝠身上的S蛋白里头ACE2这个受体开头只要一调,这个病毒马上就可以传染给人,对应的英文原文是——【Therefore, we synthesized the SHC014 spike in the context of the replication-competent, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV backbone (we hereafter refer to the chimeric CoV as SHC014-MA15) to maximize the opportunity for pathogenesis and vaccine studies in mice (Supplementary Fig. 2a). Despite predictions from both structure-based modeling and pseudotyping experiments, SHC014-MA15 was viable and replicated to high titers in Vero cells (Supplementary Fig. 2b). Similarly to SARS, SHC014-MA15 also required a functional ACE2 molecule for entry and could use human, civet and bat ACE2 orthologs (Supplementary Fig. 2c,d). To test the ability of the SHC014 spike to mediate infection of the human airway, we examined the sensitivity of the human epithelial airway cell line Calu-3 2B4 (ref. 9) to infection and found robust SHC014-MA15 replication, comparable to that of SARS-CoV Urbani (Fig. 1c). To extend these findings, primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures were infected and showed robust replication of both viruses (Fig. 1d). Together, the data confirm the ability of viruses with the SHC014 spike to infect human airway cells and underscore the potential threat of cross-species transmission of SHC014-CoV.】【The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild-type backbone can efficiently use multiple orthologs of the SARS receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV.】

(该论文作者:Vineet D MenacheryBoyd L Yount JrKari DebbinkSudhakar AgnihothramLisa E GralinskiJessica A PlanteRachel L GrahamTrevor ScobeyXing-Yi GeEric F DonaldsonScott H RandellAntonio LanzavecchiaWayne A MarascoZhengli-Li Shi & Ralph S Baric

以下内容全部取自1/29/2020 路安艾时评:独家重磅实锤!武汉病毒中共实验室改造直接证据!班农节目引用专家“5月初保守估计将达14.7亿人次被感染”!,在这个视频中路德提到 石正丽还有一个葛兴仪,这两个是这篇论文的最大贡献者,其他人都是联名,葛兴仪是武汉大学病毒研究所负责病毒研究的,他们发现一个重要的现象,他们只要把云南蝙蝠病毒S蛋白里头ACE2这个受体开关只要一调,这个病毒马上就可以传染给人,他们发现了这个开关!

他们在这篇论文中把他们的发现刊登出来。他们说利用病毒基因重组的技术把蝙蝠蛋白的S蛋白和小老鼠的SARS病毒重组,得到的新病毒可以很有效的结合人体的ACE2,进而有效地感染人呼吸道细胞并且毒性大,在这个阶段是细胞实验阶段,同时他们还发现新病毒明显损害老鼠的两个肺,这个新病毒让老鼠生病时,现有的疫苗和抗体均无效。在这个发现的基础上,他们计划继续做猴子实验,以模仿病毒对人体的效果。该实验出来以后引起很大争议,美国的一位专家说这种实验没有什么意义、风险很大,在2014年的时候美国已经叫停了这种有风险的病毒改造计划,当时课题组已经在做了,就是这个实证力的课题组已经在做,他们想说服INH这个课题无害,结果在2015年就发表了这篇文章,这个实验是跟北卡来罗纳叫停的与唐山的团队合作的。

4. Fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin(自然杂志发表于2018年4月4日Published: 04 April 2018),

【Here we provide virological, epidemiological, evolutionary and experimental evidence that a novel HKU2-related bat coronavirus, swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), is the aetiological agent that was responsible for a large-scale outbreak of fatal disease in pigs in China that has caused the death of 24,693 piglets across four farms. Notably, the outbreak began in Guangdong province in the vicinity of the origin of the SARS pandemic. Furthermore, we identified SADS-related CoVs with 96–98% sequence identity in 9.8% (58 out of 591) of anal swabs collected from bats in Guangdong province during 2013–2016, predominantly in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp.) that are known reservoirs of SARS-related CoVs. We found that there were striking similarities between the SADS and SARS outbreaks in geographical, temporal, ecological and aetiological settings. This study highlights the importance of identifying coronavirus diversity and distribution in bats to mitigate future outbreaks that could threaten livestock, public health and economic growth.】

据财新2018年04月05日 07:12发表的中国学者同日在《自然》发2篇论文,揭示病毒进化历程 :研究人员发现了一种新型的冠状病毒不同宿主中传播,该病毒在从蝙蝠向猪传播,并造成猪场发生大规模猪死亡事件。这项研究确定了2016-2017年造成广东仔猪场发生仔猪急性致死性腹泻的病原为一种蝙蝠来源的新型冠状病毒。

(该论文作者Peng ZhouHang FanTian LanXing-Lou YangWei-Feng ShiWei ZhangYan ZhuYa-Wei ZhangQing-Mei XieShailendra ManiXiao-Shuang ZhengBei LiJin-Man LiHua GuoGuang-Qian PeiXiao-Ping AnJun-Wei ChenLing ZhouKai-Jie MaiZi-Xian WuDi LiDanielle E. AndersonLi-Biao ZhangShi-Yue LiZhi-Qiang MiTong-Tong HeFeng CongPeng-Ju GuoRen HuangYun LuoXiang-Ling LiuJing ChenYong HuangQiang Sun,Xiang-Li-Lan ZhangYuan-Yuan WangShao-Zhen XingYan-Shan ChenYuan SunJuan LiPeter DaszakLin-Fa WangZheng-Li ShiYi-Gang Tong & Jing-Yun Ma

据财新2018年04月05日 07:12发表的中国学者同日在《自然》发2篇论文,揭示病毒进化历程之二:The evolutionary history of vertebrate RNA viruses(自然杂志发表于2018年4月4日Published: 04 April 2018):来自中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制所张永振研究团队在《自然》杂志发文称,通过对214种RNA病毒进行大规模的Meta转录组分析,理清了它们在爬行、两栖、鱼等动物群体中的进化关系,并发现这些RNA病毒尽管拥有不同的寄主,但都可以在不同宿主中共进化。

(该论文作者:Mang Shi, Xian-Dan Lin, Xiao Chen, Jun-Hua Tian, Liang-Jun Chen, Kun Li, Wen Wang, John-Sebastian Eden,Jin-Jin Shen,Li Liu, Edward C. Holmes & Yong-Zhen Zhang

结束语:由于专业领域的不同,作为非专业人士想要彻底读懂石正丽的系列论文存在巨大困难,但是我们不能忘掉石正丽,因为中共一直在说病毒溯源是科学问题,那么我们一定要看看石正丽是怎么从科学领域对这个世界进行误导的,如果我们忽视了石正丽这么多年的种种“研究”,我们就无法面对现在每天都在增加的因CCP冠状病毒导致的感染人群和死亡人群,因为我们每个人都处在这种危险中!

(文章内容仅代表作者个人观点)

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joop12345
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艾格

8月 06日