汤姆‧科顿议员报告(五)——《战胜中共国:针对性脱钩与经济持久战》

五月花写作组 | 翻译:jiasen | 校对:虹陵 | 编辑:jamie(文胤) | 美工、发稿:灭共小宇宙

往期链接:

汤姆‧科顿议员报告序言——《战胜中共国:针对性脱钩与经济持久战》

汤姆‧克顿议员报告(一)——《战胜中共国:针对性脱钩与经济持久战》

汤姆‧克顿议员报告(二)——《战胜中共国:针对性脱钩与经济持久战》

汤姆‧科顿议员报告(三)——《战胜中共国:针对性脱钩与经济持久战》

汤姆‧科顿议员报告(四)——《战胜中共国:针对性脱钩与经济持久战》


KNOWLEDGE 

知识

Knowledge, innovation, and technology are force multipliers that allow a country of 330 million people to compete against a country of 1.4 billion people. The United States will be unable to compete against China over the long run if it doesn’t retain a decisive—and proprietary—edge in science, technology, innovation, and development. China understands the importance of knowledge in driving outcomes, which is why it has been working for decades to reach the cutting edge of scientific and technological disciplines—whether by innovation or theft. This campaign has yielded results. In some areas, including quantum computing, China has reached the frontier of technical knowledge, and is now pressing ahead of the pack as an innovator. 

知识,创新,和技术是力量倍增器,使3.3亿人口的国家与14亿人口的国家竞争。如果美国不能在科学,技术,创新和研发方面保持决定性和独有的优势,那么从长远来看,美国将无法与中共国竞争。中共国清楚知识对推动成果的重要性,这就是为什么数十年来,无论是通过创新还是盗窃,它一直致力于达到科学技术各个学科的最前沿。这一努力取得了成果。 在某些领域,包括量子计算,中共国已经到达了技术知识的前沿,并且正以创新者的身份努力处于领先地位。

The Chinese government prioritizes acquiring knowledge—specifically, American knowledge— in its economic, technological, and intelligence-gathering strategies. This priority is evident in China’s systematic and largely successful infiltration of American knowledge institutions, such as U.S. colleges and universities, research labs, and private companies. The United States must treat these institutions, and the knowledge they generate, as key national assets. America’s economic edge depends on it. 

中共政府在其经济,技术,和情报收集策略中优先考虑获取知识,尤其是来自美国的知识。在中共国对美国的学院,大学,研究性实验室,和私人公司等美国知识机构的系统化和很大程度上相当成功的渗透活动中,这一优先的任务显而易见。美国必须将这些机构,及它们产生的知识视为关键的国家资产。美国的经济优势依赖于此。

Higher Education 

高等教育

China acquires American technology and know-how prior to its commercialization and deployment by infiltrating the U.S. higher-education system and research laboratories. In 2018- 19, roughly 370,000 Chinese students studied in the United States, up from fewer than 100,000 a decade earlier. Nearly half of these students are enrolled in STEM courses, which are of special relevance to any nation’s technological and military advancement. U.S. universities trained some of the Chinese military’s top minds. One report found that the Chinese military sponsored more than 2,500 scientists and engineers to study abroad in the past decade, with an estimated 500 of these individuals conducting research in the United States. The American footprint in Chinese higher education is, by comparison, trivial. 

在商业化和部署之前,中共国通过渗透美国的高等教育系统和研究性实验室,获得美国的技术和专有知识。在2018-19学年,大约37万名中共国学生在美国学习,而十年前只有不到10万名学生。这些学生中将近一半就读于STEM(科学、技术、工程、数学)课程,这些专业与任何国家的技术和军事进步都息息相关。美国大学培养了一些中共国军方的顶尖人才。一份报告发现,中共国军方在过去的十年中赞助了2500多名科学家和工程师到国外学习,估计其中有500人在美国从事研究工作。相比之下,美国人在中共国高等教育中的足迹则微不足道。

Unfortunately, American citizens and legal permanent residents are sometimes agents of Beijing’s economic espionage. The CCP has created over 200 foreign talent recruitment programs that offer salaries, research funding, and lab space, among other incentives, to entice U.S.-based scientists and engineers to turn over the fruits of their research. The Department of Justice has charged a number of American scientists for lying about their ties to the Thousand Talents Program, China’s most prominent foreign talent initiative. For example, Charles Lieber, chair of Harvard’s chemistry department and a world-renowned leader in the field of nanoscale electronics, signed on to be a “strategic scientist” at China’s Wuhan University of Technology. For his participation, the CCP allegedly gave Lieber $50,000 a month, a $150,000 annual stipend, and a laboratory in Wuhan worth more than $1.5 million. Lieber now faces federal charges for hiding the full scale of his financial ties to China. U.S. officials announced Lieber’s charges on the same day as charges against another Harvard researcher, Zaosong Zheng, who was caught attempting to transport 21 stolen vials of cells to China. 

不幸的是,有些时候,中共国经济间谍活动的代理人是美国公民和合法永久居民。中共已经建立了200多个外国人才招聘计划,以提供薪水,研究经费,实验室空间,以及其他激励措施,来吸引美国的科学家和工程师将研究成果交给中共。许多美国的科学家因在解释与中国最著名的外国人才计划,即“千人计划”之间的关系时说谎,而受到司法部的指控。例如,哈佛大学化学系主任,纳米级电子领域的世界知名专家查尔斯·利伯(Charles Lieber)曾经签约成为中共国武汉理工大学的“战略科学家”。据称,中共为吸引利伯的参与,为他提供了以下条件:每月5万美元的工资,每年15万美元的津贴,以及位于武汉超过150万美元的实验室。利伯目前因隐藏与中共国的全部金融关系而面临联邦指控。美国官员在宣布对利伯的指控的同一天,宣布了对另一名哈佛研究员郑灶松的指控,而郑灶松试图将盗走的21小瓶细胞带回中共国。

National security officials have warned repeatedly of the threat posed by Beijing’s “non traditional collectors” on U.S. college campuses. In July 2020, the FBI announced it was investigating almost 2,500 cases of Chinese espionage and intellectual property theft. Such cases occupied the time and resources of every FBI field office and comprised roughly half of the FBI’s counterintelligence cases.59 These warnings have largely fallen on deaf ears in academia.  

国家安全官员多次警告中共国的“非传统情报收集员”对美国大学校园构成的威胁。2020年7月,联邦调查局宣布,它正在调查近2500起中共国间谍和知识产权盗窃案。这些案件占用了联邦调查局每个驻地办事处的时间和资源,约占联邦调查局反情报案件的一半。而学术界对这些警告基本是充耳不闻。

The CCP’s penetration of American higher education has encountered little resistance from American faculty and administrators who depend on full-freight tuition payments of international students. Take a recent case at Boston University, where a People’s Liberation Army (PLA) officer embedded within a laboratory conducting cutting-edge artificial intelligence research with a renowned physicist. When authorities uncovered the plot in January 2020, the physicist stated he was “not interested in politics…If a person anywhere in the world wants to come to my group, and they have the money to come, I say why not?” According to that physicist’s resume, roughly 75 of the more than 200 research associates and visiting scientists that worked in his labs were from China.

中共对美国高等教育的渗透几乎没有受到任何来自美国教职和管理人员的阻力,美国高校依赖国际学生的全额学费。以波士顿大学最近的一个案例为例,一名人民解放军(PLA)官员隐藏在一个实验室中,该实验室与一位著名的物理学家进行着尖端的人工智能研究。当局于2020年1月发现该阴谋时,这位物理学家表示他“对政治不感兴趣……如果世界上任何地方的人想加入我的团队,而他们有钱带来,我说,为什么不?” 该物理学家的简历显示,在他实验室工作的200多名研究人员和访问科学家中,大约有75名来自中共国。

These cases are the tip of the iceberg. China’s dark money permeates U.S. higher education. The Department of Education opened investigations into both Harvard and Yale in February 2020 as part of a review that indicates U.S. universities had not reported at least $6.5 billion in foreign funding, including funding from China.These investigations followed similar inquiries into Georgetown University, Cornell University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

这些案例只是冰山一角。 中共国的黑钱渗入了美国的高等教育界。教育部于2020年2月对哈佛和耶鲁进行了调查,这是一项审查的一部分,该审查表明美国大学没有报告的外国资金至少有65亿美元,包括来自中共国的资金。针对乔治敦大学,康奈尔大学和麻省理工学院,也有类似的调查。

Corporate and National Laboratories 

企业和国家实验室

China’s drive to infiltrate U.S. research institutions extends to our most sensitive laboratories.  The Department of Energy (DOE), which oversees 17 national laboratories and the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, is fighting Chinese efforts to recruit its researchers. Investigators have exposed evidence of Chinese recruitment and penetration within the government. In May 2019, for instance, a former scientist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was indicted for making false statements about his alleged involvement in a Chinese recruitment program. This came after an employee of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration pleaded guilty to illegally accepting money from a Chinese recruitment program.

中共国渗透美国研究机构的努力扩展到了我们最敏感的实验室。能源部(DOE)监督着17个国家实验室和美国的核武器库,它正在与中共国招募其研究人员的努力作斗争。调查人员揭露了中共国的招募和渗透到政府内部的证据。例如,在2019年5月,洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室的一位前科学家因对被指卷入中共国招募计划做出虚假陈述而被起诉。在此之前,国家海洋与大气管理局的一名雇员对非法接受中共国招募计划的款项表示认罪。

The Thousand Talents Program also recruits through professional associations for Chinese engineers such as the Silicon Valley Chinese Engineers, the Hua Yuan Science & Technology Association (HYSTA), and the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST). According to one analysis, Silicon Valley is “ground [zero] for…legal, illegal and quasi-legal practices that fall just below the thresholds set by U.S. law.”  

千人计划还通过华人工程师的专业协会招募人才,例如“硅谷华人工程师协会”,“华源科技协会”(HYSTA),和“中国科技协会”(CAST)。根据一项分析,硅谷是“合法的,非法的和准合法的行为的‘发源地’,这些行为都低于美国法律所设定的底线。”

China has made infiltrating, manipulating, and exploiting U.S. research organs a central plank of its economic and military strategy. Today, China wields immense, if hidden, power within American higher education and the U.S. research-innovation complex. The full depth and breadth of this influence is unknown. However, the CCP has publicly pledged more than $2 trillion to acquire top talent in support of its strategy to dominate key emerging technologies. This figure provides a sense of the scope, scale, and seriousness of the CCP’s science and technology efforts.  

中共国已经将渗透,操纵和利用美国研究机构作为其经济和军事战略的核心内容。今天,中共国在美国的高等教育和美国研发创新领域拥有着巨大的力量,即使它是隐藏的。这种影响的真正的深度和广度尚不清楚。然而,中共已公开承诺提供超过2万亿美元的资金,以获取顶尖人才来支持其主导关键新兴技术的战略。这个数字提供了对中共科技野心的范围,规模和严重性的认识。

Labor Force 

劳动力

Chinese nationals play an outsized role at U.S. technology firms such as Apple, Amazon, Google, and Facebook, in part because of their access to U.S. higher-education institutions and focus on STEM education. In FY2019, the U.S. government issued 50,609 H-1B visas to specialized Chinese workers, making China the second-most represented country after India.  Sixty-six percent of H-1B visas granted in FY2019 were for computer-related fields.  

中共国公民在苹果、亚马逊、谷歌和脸书等美国科技公司中扮演着举足轻重的角色,部分原因是他们可以进入美国高等教育机构并专注于STEM教育。2019财年,美国政府向中共国专业工人发放了50,609份H-1B签证,使中共国成为仅次于印度的第二大代表性国家。  2019财年批准的H-1B签证中有66%是计算机相关领域。

The United States relies heavily on foreign workers in high-technology sectors, partly due to the crisis in STEM education in America. The number of U.S. citizens enrolled in upper level science and engineering programs is in steady decline. The United States ranked 18th in science and 37th in math out of 77 countries on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2018. The United States places 13th in science and 31st in math within the 37-state Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

美国在高科技领域严重依赖外国人工,部分原因是美国STEM领域的教育危机。注册高等科学和工程课程的美国公民数量正在稳步下降。在2018年的国际学生能力评估计划(PISA)中,在77个国家中,美国在科学领域排名是第18位,数学领域排名是第37位。在37个国家的经济合作与发展组织(OECD)中,美国在科学领域排名第13位,在数学领域排名第31位。

The unique risk of espionage posed by Chinese nationals must be acknowledged when evaluating the cost and benefit of accepting foreign workers. From 2011-18, 90 percent of the Department of Justice’s cases alleging economic espionage involving a state actor concerned China, as did more than two-thirds of its cases alleging theft of trade secrets. Economic espionage cases with a connection to China have increased by roughly 1,300 percent over the past decade. While some of these cases involve China’s relentless cyberespionage, a significant portion involve physical theft by workers operating on U.S. soil. Recent examples of this practice include a Chinese scientist who stole hundreds of genetically engineered rice seeds with direct pharmaceutical applications from a U.S. research facility and a Chinese born employee at Raytheon who was caught smuggling top-secret missile-defense technology to China.

在评估接受外国人工的成本和收益时,必须认识到中共国国民间谍活动的特别风险。从2011到18年,美国司法部90%涉嫌经济间谍活动的案件牵涉到与中国有关的国家行为,三分之二以上涉嫌盗窃商业秘密的案件也与中国有关。在过去十年,与中共国有关的经济间谍案件增加了大约1300%。尽管其中一些案件与中国的不懈的网络间谍活动有关,但很大一部分涉及在美国土地上作业的人员的偷窃行为。最近发生的案例包括:一名中共国科学家从美国一家研究机构偷走了数百种具有直接制药用途的转基因水稻种子,以及雷神公司(Raytheon)一名中共国出生的雇员向中共国走私绝密的导弹防御技术被抓捕。

In the words of a recent White House report, “Law enforcement efforts alone cannot keep up with (or adequately deter) a state sponsored campaign of theft.” The United States must take more aggressive action to limit the number of Chinese nationals working in sensitive positions in U.S. laboratories and companies. 

用白宫最近的一份报告的话来说,“仅靠执法不能跟上(或充分阻止)一个国家资助的盗窃活动。” 美国必须采取更加积极的行动来限制中共国公民在美国实验室和公司中的敏感职位的数量。


原文链接:

Beat China: Targeted Decoupling and the Economic Long War


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