川普總統關於建造和重建美國英雄紀念碑的行政令

Photo by Ronda Darby on Unsplash

7月3日川普總統發布關於建造和重建美國英雄紀念碑的行政命令,該命令將由一個專門組建特遣工作隊負責,選擇一個自然風景優美的地方修建國家公園,並委託藝術家創作雕塑,將具有歷史意義的美國公眾人物,包括開國元勳、美國前總統、為廢除奴隸制等的先驅們的雕像與紀念碑展示其中,以使美國人民永遠不會忘記自己的歷史,並將建國理想世世代代傳承下去。

Executive Order on Building and Rebuilding Monuments to American Heroes

關於建造和重建美國英雄紀念碑的行政命令

Issued on: July 3, 2020

發布日期:2020年7月3日

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1.  Purpose.  America owes its present greatness to its past sacrifices.  Because the past is always at risk of being forgotten, monuments will always be needed to honor those who came before.  Since the time of our founding, Americans have raised monuments to our greatest citizens.  In 1784, the legislature of Virginia commissioned the earliest statue of George Washington, a “monument of affection and gratitude” to a man who “united to the endowments of the Hero the virtues of the Patriot” and gave to the world “an Immortal Example of true Glory.”  I Res. H. Del. (June 24, 1784).  In our public parks and plazas, we have erected statues of great Americans who, through acts of wisdom and daring, built and preserved for us a republic of ordered liberty.

根據美利堅合眾國憲法和法律賦予我的總統的權力,特此命令如下:

第一节,目的:美國之偉大,是過去無數人民用生命換來的。然而過往的經歷總卻極容易被遺忘,因此我們需要樹立紀念碑來緬懷那些先驅者們。自建國以來,美國人民為這些偉大的公民樹立了豐碑。1784年,弗傑尼亞州立法機關委託建造了華盛頓雕像,美國最早的一座以“表達感激之情的紀念碑”,以表彰這位“將愛國的美德賦予人民”,並為世界樹立了“真正榮耀的不朽典範”的英雄。國會議事錄(1784年6月24日)。在我們的公園和廣場上,曾經樹立了很多偉大的美國人的雕像,是他們的智慧和勇敢,為我們建立並保存了一個有秩序的自由共和國。

These statues are silent teachers in solid form of stone and metal.  They preserve the memory of our American story and stir in us a spirit of responsibility for the chapters yet unwritten.  These works of art call forth gratitude for the accomplishments and sacrifices of our exceptional fellow citizens who, despite their flaws, placed their virtues, their talents, and their lives in the service of our Nation.  These monuments express our noblest ideals:  respect for our ancestors, love of freedom, and striving for a more perfect union.  They are works of beauty, created as enduring tributes.  In preserving them, we show reverence for our past, we dignify our present, and we inspire those who are to come.  To build a monument is to ratify our shared national project.

這些雕像是由石頭和金屬做成的,他們是無聲的老師,為我們訴說著美國的歷史和故事,並激勵著我們對尚未書寫的篇章應盡責的精神。這些藝術品喚起了我們對這些傑出公民的成就與犧牲的感激之情。儘管他們並不完美,但他們將自己的美德、才華和生命奉獻給了我們的國家。這些紀念碑表達了我們最崇高的理想:尊重我們的先輩,熱愛自由,為建立一個更完美的聯邦而奮鬥。它們是美麗的、經久不衰的藝術品。通過對它們的保存,我們得以表達對過去的崇敬,對當代(所取得的成就)的讚美,並激勵未來的人們。修建一座紀念碑意味著公民們對這項國家工程的共同願望。

To destroy a monument is to desecrate our common inheritance.  In recent weeks, in the midst of protests across America, many monuments have been vandalized or destroyed.  Some local governments have responded by taking their monuments down.  Among others, monuments to Christopher Columbus, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Francis Scott Key, Ulysses S. Grant, leaders of the abolitionist movement, the first all-volunteer African-American regiment of the Union Army in the Civil War, and American soldiers killed in the First and Second World Wars have been vandalized, destroyed, or removed.

摧毀一座紀念碑就是褻瀆我們的共同遺產。最近幾週,在美國各地的抗議活動中,許多紀念碑遭到了毀壞。一些地方政府的回應是將它們拆除,這些被毀壞和拆除的雕像包括克里斯托弗· 哥倫布、喬治·華盛頓、托馬斯·傑弗遜、本傑明·富蘭克林、弗朗西斯·斯科特·基、尤利西斯·格兰特、廢奴運動的領袖們、第一個非裔美國自願軍團,以及在第一和第二次世界大戰中陣亡的美國士兵。

These statues are not ours alone, to be discarded at the whim of those inflamed by fashionable political passions; they belong to generations that have come before us and to generations yet unborn.  My Administration will not abide an assault on our collective national memory.  In the face of such acts of destruction, it is our responsibility as Americans to stand strong against this violence, and to peacefully transmit our great national story to future generations through newly commissioned monuments to American heroes.

這些因時髦的政治激情而致的心血來潮的衝動所毀掉的雕像,它們不僅僅是屬於我們的,它們是屬於我們幾代的先輩們,屬於我們未來的世世代代。我國政府絕不會允許對我們國家集體記憶的這種攻擊!面對這樣的破壞行為,作為美國人,我們有責任堅決地抵制這種暴力,並通過為美國英雄們新建紀念碑,把我們偉大國家的故事和平地代代相傳。

Sec. 2.  Task Force for Building and Rebuilding Monuments to American Heroes. 

 (a)  There is hereby established the Interagency Task Force for Building and Rebuilding Monuments to American Heroes (Task Force).  The Task Force shall be chaired by the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary), and shall include the following additional members:

(i)    the Administrator of General Services (Administrator);

(ii)   the Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA);

(iii)  the Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH);

(iv)   the Chairman of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP); and

(v)    any officers or employees of any executive department or agency (agency) designated by the President or the Secretary.

第二節.  建造和重建美國英雄紀念碑的特遣工作隊

  (a).  特此設立為修建和重建紀念碑的跨機構合作工作隊。工作隊須由內政部長(局長)擔任主席,並須包括以下其他成員:

(i). 總務署署長(Administrator);

(ii). 國家藝術基金會(NEA)主席;

(iii). 國家人文基金會(NEH)主席;

(iv). 歷史保護資訊委員會主席;

(v). 總統或行政部長指定的任何行政部門或機構的官員或員工(Agency)。

(b)  The Department of the Interior shall provide funding and administrative support as may be necessary for the performance and functions of the Task Force.  The Secretary shall designate an official of the Department of the Interior to serve as the Executive Director of the Task Force, responsible for coordinating its day-to-day activities.

內政部應為工作隊的執行和職能提供必要的資金和行政支持。內政部長應指定該部的一名官員擔任工作隊的執行主任,負責協調其日常工作。

(c)  The Chairpersons of the NEA and NEH and the Chairman of the ACHP shall establish cross-department initiatives within the NEA, NEH, and ACHP, respectively, to advance the purposes of the Task Force and this order and to coordinate relevant agency operations with the Task Force.

(c). 國家能源局(NEA)、國家藝術基金會(NEA)、國家人文基金會(NEH)、歷史古蹟保護資訊委員會(ACHP)的主席們須分別在本部建立跨部門小組,以推進工作隊和執行本命令的目的,並與工作隊協調相關機構的運作。

Sec. 3.  National Garden of American Heroes. 

 (a)  It shall be the policy of the United States to establish a statuary park named the National Garden of American Heroes (National Garden).

第三節.  美國英雄的國家花園

(a). 建立一個以國家花園命名的雕像公園應是美國的政策。

(b)  Within 60 days of the date of this order, the Task Force shall submit a report to the President through the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy that proposes options for the creation of the National Garden, including potential locations for the site.  In identifying options, the Task Force shall:

(i)    strive to open the National Garden expeditiously;

(ii)   evaluate the feasibility of creating the National Garden through a variety of potential avenues, including existing agency authorities and appropriations; and

(iii)  consider the availability of authority to encourage and accept the donation or loan of statues by States, localities, civic organizations, businesses, religious organizations, and individuals, for display at the National Garden.

(b). 在本命令發佈之日起60天內,工作隊應通過總統助理向總統提交一份國內政策報告,該報告應提出創建國家花園的方案,包括一些可供選擇的場地。在確定被選方案時,工作隊應:

(i). 盡力迅速開放國家花園;

(ii). 通過各種可能途徑,包括各機構的專家和撥款,評估建立國家花園的可行性;

(iii). 考慮是否也可以鼓勵和接受來自州、地區、民間組織、企業、宗教組織以及個人的捐款或出借雕像,以便在國家花園展示。

(c)  In addition to the requirements of subsection 3(b) of this order, the proposed options for the National Garden should adhere to the criteria described in subsections (c)(i) through (c)(vi) of this section.

(i)    The National Garden should be composed of statues, including statues of John Adams, Susan B. Anthony, Clara Barton, Daniel Boone, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Henry Clay, Davy Crockett, Frederick Douglass, Amelia Earhart, Benjamin Franklin, Billy Graham, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Luther King, Jr., Abraham Lincoln, Douglas MacArthur, Dolley Madison, James Madison, Christa McAuliffe, Audie Murphy, George S. Patton, Jr., Ronald Reagan, Jackie Robinson, Betsy Ross, Antonin Scalia, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Harriet Tubman, Booker T. Washington, George Washington, and Orville and Wilbur Wright.

(ii)   The National Garden should be opened for public access prior to the 250th anniversary of the proclamation of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 2026.

(c). 除本命令第3(b)小節要求外,國家花園的擬議方案應符合本節(c)(i)至(c) (vi)小節所定的標準。

(i). 國家花園應由雕像組成,它們包括約翰·亞當斯、蘇珊·b·安東尼、克拉拉·巴頓、丹尼爾·布恩、約書亞·勞倫斯·張伯倫、亨利·克莱、戴维·克羅基特、弗雷德里克·道格拉斯、阿米利亞·埃尔哈特、本傑明·富兰克林、比利·格雷厄姆、亚历山大·汉密尔顿、托马斯·杰斐逊、小马丁·路德·金、亚伯拉罕·林肯、道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟将军、多利·麦迪逊、詹姆斯·麦迪逊、克里斯塔·麦考利夫奧迪·墨菲、喬治·S·巴顿將軍、罗纳德·里根、杰基·罗宾森、贝琪·罗斯、安东宁·斯卡利亚、哈里特·比彻·斯托、哈里特·塔布曼、布克·T·华盛顿、乔治·华盛顿,奥维尔和威尔伯·赖特。

(ii). 國家花園應在2026年7月4日美國獨立宣言的250週年紀念日之前對公眾開放。

(iii)  Statues should depict historically significant Americans, as that term is defined in section 7 of this order, who have contributed positively to America throughout our history.  Examples include:  the Founding Fathers, those who fought for the abolition of slavery or participated in the underground railroad, heroes of the United States Armed Forces, recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor or Presidential Medal of Freedom, scientists and inventors, entrepreneurs, civil rights leaders, missionaries and religious leaders, pioneers and explorers, police officers and firefighters killed or injured in the line of duty, labor leaders, advocates for the poor and disadvantaged, opponents of national socialism or international socialism, former Presidents of the United States and other elected officials, judges and justices, astronauts, authors, intellectuals, artists, and teachers.  None will have lived perfect lives, but all will be worth honoring, remembering, and studying.

(iv)   All statues in the National Garden should be lifelike or realistic representations of the persons they depict, not abstract or modernist representations.

(v)    The National Garden should be located on a site of natural beauty that enables visitors to enjoy nature, walk among the statues, and be inspired to learn about great figures of America’s history.  The site should be proximate to at least one major population center, and the site should not cause significant disruption to the local community.

(vi)   As part of its civic education mission, the National Garden should also separately maintain a collection of statues for temporary display at appropriate sites around the United States that are accessible to the general public.

(iii). 根據本命令第7條定義,被塑立雕像的都是具有歷史意義的美國人,他們在整個美國歷史上做出了積極貢獻。比如:開國元勳們、為廢除奴隸制而奮鬥的英雄,參加“地下鐵路”的人們、美國武裝部隊的英雄們、國會榮譽勳章或總統自由勳章的獲得者、科學家和發明家、企業家、民權領袖、傳教士和宗教領袖、開拓者和探險者、在執行任務中犧牲或受傷的警察和消防員、工會領袖、知識分子、為貧窮和弱勢群體服務的社會工作者、反對國家社會主義或國際社會主義的鬥士、前美國總統和其他民選政府官員、法官和大法官、宇航員、作家、知識分子、藝術家、教師。他們都不完美,但卻值得被尊重、紀念和學習。

(iv). 國家花園的雕像都應是現實主義的作品,人物刻畫栩栩如生,彷彿是他們生前再現。不用抽象或現代主義的表現手法。

(v). 國家花園應該建在一個自然風景優美的地方,遊客們在心曠神怡之際漫步於雕像間,受到感召的心靈更易激發起對這些偉大人物的了解和學習的渴望。

(vi). 作為公民教育使命的一部分,國家花園還應該另外保存一組雕像,以便在全美各地公眾可訪問的適當地點臨時展示。

Sec. 4.  Commissioning of New Statues and Works of Art.  (a)  The Task Force shall examine the appropriations authority of the agencies represented on it in light of the purpose and policy of this order.  Based on its examination of relevant authorities, the Task Force shall make recommendations for the use of these agencies’ appropriations.

(b)  To the extent appropriate and consistent with applicable law and the other provisions of this order, Task Force agencies that are authorized to provide for the commissioning of statues or monuments shall, in expending funds, give priority to projects involving the commissioning of publicly accessible statues of persons meeting the criteria described in section 3(b)(iii) of this order, with particular preference for statues of the Founding Fathers, former Presidents of the United States, leading abolitionists, and individuals involved in the discovery of America.

第四節. 對新雕像和藝術品的製作的選拔

(a). 工作隊應根據本命令的宗旨和政策審查其所代表的各機構的撥款權限。根據對有關機構的審查基礎上,工作隊應就這些機構的撥款提出建議。

(b). 在與適當的法律和本命令的其它規定相一致的情況下,工作隊經授權為雕像的製作的選拔任務的機構,應在支出的資金中優先考慮那些方便公眾參觀的、符合在3(b)(iii)所描述的標準的雕像項目,尤其是優先考慮開國元勳人物雕像、美國總統、主要的廢奴主義者,以及參與發現美洲大陸的人。

(c)  To the extent appropriate and consistent with applicable law, these agencies shall prioritize projects that will result in the installation of a statue as described in subsection (b) of this section in a community where a statue depicting a historically significant American was removed or destroyed in conjunction with the events described in section 1 of this order.

(c). 在與適當的法律和本命令的其它規定相一致的情況下,這些機構應優先考慮在那些具有歷史意義的美國雕像遭到移除或毀壞的社區(即在本命令的第一節中所描述的事件)安裝符合(b)小節中描述的雕像項目。

(d)  After consulting with the Task Force, the Administrator of General Services shall promptly revise and thereafter operate the General Service Administration’s (GSA’s) Art in Architecture (AIA) Policies and Procedures, GSA Acquisition Letter V-10-01, and Part 102-77 of title 41, Code of Federal Regulations, to prioritize the commission of works of art that portray historically significant Americans or events of American historical significance or illustrate the ideals upon which our Nation was founded.  Priority should be given to public-facing monuments to former Presidents of the United States and to individuals and events relating to the discovery of America, the founding of the United States, and the abolition of slavery.  Such works of art should be designed to be appreciated by the general public and by those who use and interact with Federal buildings.  Priority should be given to this policy above other policies contained in part 102-77 of title 41, Code of Federal Regulations, and revisions made pursuant to this subsection shall be made to supersede any regulatory provisions of AIA that may conflict with or otherwise impede advancing the purposes of this subsection.

(d). 在與特遣工作隊協商之後,總務管理局局長應立即修訂與啟動總務管理局(GSA)的建築藝術(AIA)政策和程序,GSA採購信函V-10-01和《聯邦規則彙編》第41篇第102-77段,以優先考慮那些具有歷史意義的美國人雕像,或具有歷史意義的事件,或能夠折射出我們建國理想的雕像藝術品。優先考慮還包括面向公眾的前美國總統的紀念碑,以及與美國的發現和建國、廢除奴隸制有關的人。此類藝術品的設計應受到公眾和使用聯邦建築物的人們的欣賞。優先考慮這一政策,此政策高於在《联邦規則彙編》第41篇102-77段中所描述的其它政策,並根據本小節進行的修訂以取代任何可能阻礙推進本小節目標的AIA監管規定。

(e)  When a statue or work of art commissioned pursuant to this section is meant to depict a historically significant American, the statue or work of art shall be a lifelike or realistic representation of that person, not an abstract or modernist representation.

(e).  當根據本條委託創作的雕像或藝術品符合對歷史意義的美國人的描繪時,該雕像或藝術品應是此人的栩栩如生或真實的呈現,而不是抽象或現代主義的表現。

Sec. 5.  Educational Programming.  The Chairperson of the NEH shall prioritize the allocation of funding to programs and projects that educate Americans about the founding documents and founding ideals of the United States, as appropriate and to the extent consistent with applicable law, including section 956 of title 20, United States Code.  The founding documents include the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Federalist Papers.  The founding ideals include equality under the law, respect for inalienable individual rights, and representative self-government.  Within 90 days of the conclusion of each Fiscal Year from 2021 through 2026, the Chairperson shall submit a report to the President through the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy that identifies funding allocated to programs and projects pursuant to this section.

第五節.  教育計畫。NEH主席應酌情並在與適用法律(包括《美利堅合眾國法典》第20篇第956條)相一致的範圍內,對美國人在學習建國文件和建國理想的教育計畫和項目給予優先資金分配。建國文件波包括《獨立宣言》、《憲法》、《聯邦主義者文集》。建國理想包括法律下的平等、尊重不可剝奪的個人權利和代議制自治。在2021年至2026年的每個財政年度結束後的90天內,該主席應通過國內政策主席助理向總統提交一份報告,將根據本節對計畫和項目進行的資金分配作出說明。

Sec. 6.  Protection of National Garden and Statues Commissioned Pursuant to this Order.  The Attorney General shall apply section 3 of Executive Order 13933 of June 26, 2020 (Protecting American Monuments, Memorials, and Statues and Combating Recent Criminal Violence), with respect to violations of Federal law regarding the National Garden and all statues commissioned pursuant to this order.

第六節.  根據此命令委託對國家花園的雕像進行保護。司法部長應執行2020年6月26日第13933號行政命令第3節(保護美國古蹟,紀念碑和雕像,打擊近期的犯罪暴力),並根據本命令對涉及國家花園和所有雕像的違反聯邦法律的行為做出懲戒。

Sec. 7.  Definition.  The term “historically significant American” means an individual who was, or became, an American citizen and was a public figure who made substantive contributions to America’s public life or otherwise had a substantive effect on America’s history.  The phrase also includes public figures such as Christopher Columbus, Junipero Serra, and the Marquis de La Fayette, who lived prior to or during the American Revolution and were not American citizens, but who made substantive historical contributions to the discovery, development, or independence of the future United States.

第七節.  定義。“具有歷史意義的美國人”這一短語是指一個已是美國公民、或後來成為美國公民的人,他是一個對美國社會做出了重大貢獻或對美國歷史產生了巨大影響的公眾人物。該短語還包括克里斯托弗·哥伦布、朱尼佩罗·塞拉和德拉费耶特侯爵等公眾人物。他們生活在美國革命之前或期間,他們不是美國公民,但他們對美國的發現、發展和獨立做出了實質性的歷史貢獻。

Sec. 8.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b)  This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

第八節.  總體规定。(a). 本命令中的任何內容均不得被解釋為損害或影響:

(i). 法律授予行政部門或機構或其負責人的權利;或

(ii). 管理局和预算局局長、行政或立法建议的职能。

(b)本命令的执行应與适用法律相一致,并視拨款情况而定。

(c)本命令無意,也不會为任何一方創造權力或利益,無論是實體還是程序,無論以法律執行還是以政黨、部門、機構、政府官員、雇員,或代理商,或其他任何人。

DONALD J. TRUMP

THE WHITE HOUSE,
July 3, 2020.

唐纳德·川普

白宫

2020年7月3日

翻譯報導:【奔騰的長江】

戰友之家玫瑰園小隊出品

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Himalaya Rose Garden Team

“but those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings like eagles; they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be faint” 【Isaiah 40:31】 7月 05日