湯姆‧克頓議員報告(一)——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》

五月花寫作組 | 翻譯:Rosy Cloud | 校對:jiasen | 編輯:jamie(文胤) | 美工、發稿:滅共小宇宙

Beat China: Targeted Decoupling and the Economic Long War 戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰

往期鏈接:

湯姆‧科頓議員報告序言——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

執行摘要

The United States is in the middle of a strategic competition with China that may last as long as the Cold War. The U.S. and Chinese economies have grown too entangled, particularly in critical sectors such as defense, technology, and medicine. The urgent task for policymakers is to disentangle our economies, encourage strategic partners to do the same, and build new capabilities in America. 

美國正處於與中共國的戰略競爭之中,這種競爭有可能會像冷戰一樣曠日持久。美國和中共國的經濟已經變得過於糾纏,尤其是在國防、科技和醫療等關鍵部門。決策者的當務之急是把我們的經濟剝離出來,同時鼓勵戰略夥伴也這麼做,並在美國建立新的(生產)能力。

This report proposes a strategy of targeted decoupling from China, matched with policies to mitigate the economic costs of this strategy. The report also proposes to partly re-organize some key government agencies to prepare for the long economic war with China. 

這份報告提出了與中共國針對性脫鉤的戰略,並提出了相應的減輕該戰略經濟成本的政策。報告還提出為了準備與中共國的長期經濟戰,應該重組一些重要的政府機構。

The costs of targeted decoupling with China pale in comparison to the costs of passivity. We cannot watch as America becomes less prosperous and cedes its position to a totalitarian power dedicated to bending the world to its will. Americans must act decisively to avoid this fate.  

與被動不抵抗所付出的代價相比,有針對性地與中共國脫鉤的成本就顯得微不足道了。我們不能看著美國變得不如以往繁華,並讓位於一個妄圖奴役全世界的極權主義政權。美國必須果斷採取行動,以避免這種命運。


TARGETED DECOUPLING 

針對性脫鉤

A strategy of targeted decoupling from China will have the following objectives: 

針對性脫鉤中共國的戰略將包括以下目標:

⬛ Restore secure, scalable, domestic productive capacity in areas critical to national security

在對國家安全至關重要的領域,恢復安全的、可擴展的國內生產能力

⬛ Maintain technological advantage over China in strategic areas 

在戰略領域保持對中共國的技術優勢

⬛ Preserve U.S. dollar dominance 

維護美元主導地位

⬛ Slow China’s growth 

放緩中共國的增長

Targeted decoupling requires policymakers to focus on broad areas of concern such as trade and investment. It also requires focus on specific sectors such as higher education, entertainment, semiconductors, telecommunications, rare-earth elements and critical minerals, medical supplies and equipment, and artificial intelligence and quantum computing.

針對性脫鉤需要決策者重點關註寬泛的領域,如貿易與投資。還需要關註高等教育、娛樂、半導體、電信、稀土元素與關鍵礦物、醫療用品與設備、以及人工智慧與量子計算等具體部門。


RULE-BREAKERS, SANCTIONS, AND TRADE 

規則破壞者、製裁以及貿易

• Sanction the perpetrators and beneficiaries of Chinese intellectual property theft 

製裁中共盜取知識產權的犯罪者及其受益者

• Expand the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control to help it carry out this sanctions campaign 

擴大財政部海外資產控制辦公室,以幫助其開展這一製裁行動

• Expand the U.S. Intelligence Community’s collection efforts related to China’s economic and technological development 

擴大美國情報界對中共國經濟和技術發展相關的情報收集工作

• Apply targeted import duties on Chinese companies that engage in anti-competitive practices 

對從事反競爭行為的中共國公司徵收有針對性的進口稅

• Tighten U.S. export controls on certain advanced technologies for all Chinese end-users 

收緊美國對所有中共國終端用戶的某些先進技術的出口管制

• Revoke China’s Permanent Normal Trade Relations status 

撤消中共國永久正常貿易關系地位


INVESTMENT 

投資

• Expand restrictions on U.S. outbound investment in China to include investments in Chinese technology companies, companies tied to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and companies implicated in the CCP’s human-rights abuses 

擴大對美國對中共國投資的限制,包括對中共國科技公司、與中共有關聯的公司以及與中共侵犯人權有牽連的公司的投資

• Restrict certain investments in the Chinese market by U.S.-based investment funds, including public and private pension funds 

限制美國投資基金(包括公共和私人養老基金)在中共國市場的某些投資

• Require the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) to scrutinize inbound Chinese investments into strategic sectors with a presumption of denial 

要求美國外資投資委員會對中共國進入戰略領域的投資進行基於拒絕推定的嚴格審查   


HIGHER EDUCATION 

高等教育

• Bar funding from the Chinese government or nominally private entities acting on its behalf to U.S. universities, laboratories, and other research institutions 

禁止來自中共國政府或名義上的私人實則是代表中共國政府的實體向美國大學、實驗室及研究機構的資金

• Restrict university faculty and staff from accepting compensation from entities linked to the Chinese government 

限制大學教職員工接受來自於中共政府有關聯實體的報酬

• End American higher education’s satellite university system in China 

結束美國高等教育在中國設置大學分校的系統

• Bar Chinese nationals in graduate and post-graduate programs in the United States from studying or conducting research in sensitive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields 

禁止中共國公民在美國讀本科和研究生時學習或從事科學、技術、工程和數學等敏感領域的研究

• Expand the State Department’s Visa Mantis program to vet Chinese national applicants 

擴大國務院“簽證螳螂計劃”用於審查中共國公民的申請

• End the 10-year multi-entry visa program for Chinese nationals

結束中共國公民的10年多次入境簽證


ENTERTAINMENT 

娛樂

• Ban all Chinese investment in U.S. film and television studios, streaming services, and platforms that show movies and TV shows in the United States, such as movie theater operators and cable and broadcast television providers 

禁止中國對美國電影和電視工作室、流媒體服務以及在美國放映電影和電視節目的平臺,比如電影院運營商、有線電視以及廣播電視提供商的所有投資

• End DOD, CIA, and FBI support to any studio that allows content it releases in the U.S.  market to be censored by the CCP 

結束國防部、中情局和聯邦調查局對任何允許中共審查其在美國市場所發布內容的工作室的支持


SEMICONDUCTORS 

半導體

• Ban the sale of cutting-edge semiconductors, semiconductor machinery, and software-design tools developed or produced with U.S. technology to Chinese entities 

禁止向中共國實體出售使用美國技術開發或生產的尖端半導體、半導體機械和軟體設計工具

• Explore establishing a multilateral semiconductor trading and export-control bloc 

探索建立多邊半導體貿易和出口管制陣營

• Upgrade U.S. semiconductor manufacturing capacity via federal grants and public private partnerships 

通過聯邦撥款和公私合作提升美國半導體製造能力


TELECOMS AND 5G 

電信和5G

• Continue efforts to halt Chinese firms from expanding their positions in global 5G telecoms networks and impose further sanctions on Huawei 

繼續努力阻止中共國企業擴大其在全球5G電信網路的地位,並對華為實施進一步的製裁

• Develop a viable 5G alternative to Chinese vendors within a reasonable timeframe, in conjunction with allies 

於盟友一起,在合理的時間內開發出5G的可行的替代方案以取代中共國廠商

• Establish an American-led 5G coalition 

建立由美國領導的5G聯盟


CRITICAL MINERALS AND RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS 

關鍵礦物和稀土元素

• Diversify foreign sources of rare earths to reduce reliance on China 

• 多樣化外國稀土來源以減少對中共國的依賴

• Build domestic rare-earth production and processing infrastructure that can be scaled quickly in the event of a crisis or protracted conflict 

• 建立國內稀土生產和加工基礎設施,以在發生危機或曠日持久的沖突時可以迅速擴大規模

• Prohibit federal purchasing of items containing rare earths and critical minerals mined or processed in China by a certain date 

•  禁止聯邦政府在某一日期之前購買在中國開採或加工的含有稀土和關鍵礦物的物品。

• Establish a national strategic stockpile of rare-earth inputs large enough to sustain the military and economy for as long as it would take to reach full wartime production

• 建立足夠多的稀土投入的國家戰略儲備,以便在達到戰時全面生產所需的時間內維持軍事和經濟。


MEDICINE AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT 

藥品和醫療設備

• Prohibit federal purchasing and reimbursement of drugs that contain active pharmaceutical ingredients made in China by a certain date 

• 在某一日期之前,禁止聯邦採購和報銷含有中國生產的活性藥物成分的藥品,

• Create an FDA requirement that all drugs sold in the United States must include conspicuous country-of-origin labeling for their active ingredients 

• 確立美國食品和藥物管理局規定,所有在美國銷售的藥品必須在其活性成分上貼上明顯的原產國標簽。

• Expand the Strategic National Stockpile so that it contains sufficient medical supplies and equipment to last at least six months during a crisis

• 擴大醫療用品和設備的全國性戰略儲備,使其可以在危機期間至少維持六個月的供給

• Retain or restore enough domestic medical-equipment manufacturing so that production can be increased to meet crisis-level demand within six months

• 保留或恢復足夠的國內醫療設備製造,以便可以在六個月內增加產量至滿足危機等級的需求 


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND QUANTUM INFORMATION SCIENCE 

人工智慧與量子信息科學

• Explore a series of data sharing and data export-control agreements with trusted allies and partners 

• 與可信賴的盟友和合作夥伴探討一系列數據共用和數據導出控制協議 

• Close American artificial intelligence research and development (R&D) centers in China, as well as Chinese artificial intelligence R&D centers in the United States 

• 關閉在中共國的美國人工智慧研發中心,以及在美國的中共國人工智慧研發中心


原文鏈接:

Beat China: Targeted Decoupling and the Economic Long War


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