湯姆‧克頓議員報告(二)——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》

五月花寫作組 | 翻譯:mutanhuokaorou | 校對:jiasen | 編輯:jamie(文胤) | 美工、發稿:滅共小宇宙

Beat China: Targeted Decoupling and the Economic Long War 戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰

往期鏈接:

湯姆‧科頓議員報告序言——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》

湯姆‧克頓議員報告(一)——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》


MITIGATING THE COSTS OF DECOUPLING 

降低脫鉤成本

Targeted decoupling with China will impose up-front costs and create risk, but government policy can soften the disturbances associated with decoupling. These policies will place the country on a stronger footing over the long term.  

與中國針對性的脫鉤將增加前期成本並帶來風險,但政府政策可以緩解與脫鉤相關的陣痛。從長遠來看,這些政策將使國家站穩腳跟。

• Open new markets to American goods and negotiate high-standard, bilateral trade agreements that prioritize American jobs and exports 

• 為美國產品開放新市場,並談判制定高標準的優先考慮美國的就業和出口的雙邊貿易協定

• Use the U.S. Agency for International Development, International Development Finance Corporation, and Export-Import Bank to connect U.S. firms with new customers, migrate supply chains out of China, and combat Chinese attempts to dominate sales of key technology 

• 通過美國國際開發署,國際開發金融公司和進出口銀行將美國公司與新客戶聯系起來,將供應鏈移出中共國,打擊中共國試圖主導關鍵技術銷售的行為

• Reclaim international institutions and standards-setting bodies from Chinese influence where possible, and establish new groups comprised of U.S. partners when existing institutions cannot be reclaimed 

• 盡可能奪回受中共國影響的國際機構和標準制定機構,並在無法收回現有機構的情況下建立由美國合作夥伴組成的新團體

• Conduct a top-to-bottom regulatory and tax-code review to accelerate the development of advanced technologies and regain U.S. leadership in strategic industries where China has the advantage 

• 進行自上而下的監管和稅法審查,以加快先進技術的發展並重新獲得美國在中共國具有優勢的戰略性行業中的領導地位

• Deepen the U.S. science, technology, engineering, and mathematics talent pool by training American engineers and specialists 

• 通過培訓美國工程師和專家來深化美國的科學、技術、工程和數學人才庫

• Increase federal support for R&D to Cold War levels and pair this surge in R&D funds with strict controls to ensure American research does not flow back to China

• 將聯邦對技術研發的支持增加到冷戰水平,並將這種技術研發資金的激增與嚴格的監管相結合,以確保美國的研究不會迴流中共國


FEDERAL GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP 

聯邦政府的領導權

A FLAWED STATUS QUO 

有缺陷的現狀

Our government failed before 2017 in most cases to engage and fight the economic long war with China for several reasons: 

絕大多數案例顯示,我們的政府在2017年之前未能與中共國打經濟持久戰,原因如下:

⬛ Elected leaders and political appointees before the Trump administration failed to recognize and lead in the face of Beijing’s challenge, and so the federal bureaucracy did not work to counter China’s economic strategy 

⬛ 川普政府之前的領導人和委任官員未能認識到並領導來自北京的挑戰,因此聯邦官僚機構沒有採取措施來對抗中共國的經濟戰略

⬛ Powers vital to economic competition with China are vested in large organizations that focus primarily on economic development and corporate interests, not national security and strategic competition 

⬛ 與中共國的經濟競爭至關重要的決策權被賦予了一些大機構,它們主要關註的是經濟發展和企業利益,而不是國家安全和戰略競爭

⬛ Five separate government entities are responsible for U.S. export-control licensing, while some of these licensing entities—particularly the Bureau of Industry and Security—are buried within organizations hostile to the aggressive use of export controls 

⬛ 五個不同的政府部門負責美國的出口管制許可,而其中一些許可管控實體—尤其是工業和安全局—夾在某些對激進的出口管制懷有敵意的機構里

⬛ CFIUS, until recently, suffered from serious loopholes 

⬛ 直到最近,美國海外投資委員會(CFIUS)仍存在嚴重漏洞

⬛ The government has paid insufficient attention to America’s declining industrial base and reliance on foreign supply chains 

⬛ 政府對美國不斷下降的工業基礎和對外國供應鏈的依賴沒有給予足夠的重視

⬛ Oversight of the U.S. research enterprise is inadequate 

⬛ 對美國研究事業的監督不足

The federal government is unprepared to compete with China because it is organized in a haphazard manner that is damaging to national security.

聯邦政府沒有做好與中共國競爭的準備,因為聯邦政府的組織隨意無秩序以至於危害到國家安全


A PATH FORWARD 

前行之路

The government should make the following organizational changes to better position itself for the economic long war: 

政府應進行以下組織變革,以便使自己處於有利位置應對經濟持久戰:

• Consolidate export-control licensing authorities across the federal government into a single licensing agency within the State Department 

•將聯邦政府各部門的出口管制許可證發放機構合並為國務院內的單一許可證發放機構。

• Give the Secretary of Defense a new role, Deputy Chair of CFIUS, to ensure that Treasury addresses national-security concerns raised by Defense and other organizations on the committee 

•賦予國防部長新角色–海外投資委員會副主席–以確保財政部能夠解決國防部及委員會中其他組織提出的國家安全問題

• Charge the Department of Commerce with continuous analysis of the industrial base and supply chain, resulting in an annual report on the state of America’s industrial base and dependency on key foreign inputs, as well as contingency plans to insulate the United States against supply-chain disruptions 

•要求商務部對工業基礎和供應鏈進行持續分析,每年給出關於美國工業基礎狀況和對國外關鍵進口物的依賴情況,以及使美國免受供應鏈斷裂影響的應急方案

• Empower the Department of Commerce to support the regeneration of U.S. manufacturing in key sectors 

•授權商務部支持關鍵部門的美國製造業的復興

• Establish a permanent interagency committee to oversee the security of the U.S. research enterprise, coordinate federal funding of R&D, and create and enforce rigorous insider threat and foreign influence policies

•建立一個常設跨機構委員會來監督美國研究事業的安全,協調聯邦政府對研發的資金資助,制定並執行嚴格的管控內部威脅和外國影響的政策


原文鏈接:

Beat China: Targeted Decoupling and the Economic Long War


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